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Publication Ethics

The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of work of the author and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior.

Ethics topics to consider when publishing:

  1. Authorship of the Paper:
    • Limited to those who significantly contributed to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the study.
  1. Originality and Plagiarism:
    • Authors must ensure their work is entirely original and appropriately cite or quote the work of others.
  1. Data Access and Retention:
    • Authors may be required to provide raw data for editorial review and should be prepared for public data access.
  1. Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication:
    • Avoid publishing essentially the same research in multiple journals.
    • Specify instances that do not constitute prior publication.
  1. Acknowledgment of Sources:
    • Proper acknowledgment of all sources is mandatory.
  1. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
    • Authors must disclose all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest.
  1. Fundamental Errors in Published Works:
    • Authors should promptly notify editors of significant errors or inaccuracies and cooperate in retraction or correction.
  1. Reporting Standards:
    • Present an accurate account of the research performed and provide an objective discussion of its significance.
  1. Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects:
    • Compliance statements required for work involving hazardous materials, procedures, equipment, or the use of animal or human subjects.
  1. Use of Patient Images or Case Details:
    • Studies involving patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and documented informed consent.

Duties of Editors:

Fair Play and Editorial Independence:

    • Evaluate manuscripts based on academic merit and relevance, without bias.
    • Decisions should not be influenced by external factors, and the Editor-in-Chief has full authority.


  1. Confidentiality:
    • Keep information about submitted manuscripts confidential, sharing it only with relevant parties.
  1. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
    • Avoid using unpublished information for personal research without consent.
    • Maintain confidentiality and recuse from handling manuscripts with conflicts of interest.
  1. Publication Decisions:
    • Ensure peer review for all submitted manuscripts.
    • The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for final publication decisions based on validation, importance, and legal requirements.
  1. Involvement in Investigations:
    • Collaborate in ethical investigations and take responsive measures to address concerns about submitted or published content.

Additional Duties of Editors:

  1. Contribution to Editorial Decisions:
    • Use peer review to make informed editorial decisions and assist authors in improving their manuscripts.
  1. Promptness:
    • Referees should promptly notify editors if they cannot review a manuscript to facilitate alternative arrangements.
  1. Standards of Objectivity:
    • Reviews should be objective, with clear and supportive arguments. Personal criticism of authors is inappropriate.
  1. Acknowledgement of Sources:
    • Identify relevant published work not cited by authors.
    • Notify editors of any substantial similarity between the manuscript and other works.
  1. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest for Reviewers:
    • Referees should declare conflicts of interest and decline review invitations if they have connections to the manuscript or authors.
    • Confidentiality of peer review must be maintained, and privileged information should not be used for personal advantage.

 Duties of Authors:

  1. Reporting Standards:
    • Present an accurate account of the work performed and the results.
    • Provide sufficient detail and references for others to replicate the work.
    • Differentiate between review articles, objective research, and opinion pieces.
  1. Data Access and Retention:
    • Be prepared to provide raw data for editorial review.
    • Make data publicly available if possible and ensure accessibility for at least 10 years.
  1. Originality and Plagiarism:
    • Submit entirely original work and appropriately cite others.
    • Plagiarism in any form is considered unethical and unacceptable.
  1. Submission/Publication Ethics:
    • Avoid submitting the same research to multiple journals.
    • Seek agreement for secondary publication and cite the primary reference.
  1. Authorship Criteria:
    • Only individuals meeting specific criteria should be listed as authors.
    • Acknowledge contributions of those not meeting authorship criteria in the “Acknowledgements” section.
  1. Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
    • Disclose conflicts of interest that may influence results or interpretation.
    • Include financial and non-financial disclosures and sources of financial support.
  1. Acknowledgment of Sources:
    • Properly acknowledge the work of others and cite influential publications.
    • Obtain explicit written permission before using information obtained privately.
  1. Hazards and Human/Animal Subjects:
    • Identify hazards inherent in the use of chemicals, procedures, or equipment.
    • Ensure compliance with laws and institutional guidelines for work involving animals or human participants.
  1. Peer Review:
    • Participate in the peer review process.
    • Respond promptly to editors’ requests for data, clarifications, and revisions.
  1. Fundamental Errors:
    • Promptly notify editors of significant errors or inaccuracies in published works.
    • Cooperate with editors to correct or retract the paper when necessary.

Duties of a Publisher:

  1. Handling Unethical Publishing Behavior’s:
    • Collaborate with editors to address alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication, or plagiarism.
    • Take appropriate measures, such as publishing errata, clarifications, or retractions as needed.
    • Work with editors to identify and prevent the publication of papers involving research misconduct.
    • Avoid encouraging or knowingly allowing research misconduct to occur.
  1. Access to Journal Content:
    • Commit to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research.
    • Ensure accessibility by establishing partnerships with organizations and maintaining a digital archive.